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部分股市资金转战京沪楼市 楼市成股市收割机

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 海南部分湿地遭房地产开发蚕食 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

官方表态:严禁城里人购买农村宅基地建别墅和会馆

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

至于维护全球贸易的自由化,这需要世界各国共同努力,因为天下是天下人的天下。
Bernard Baumohl, chief global economist of the Economic Outlook Group, said he is even more optimistic. "The next two years could be the best two we have seen in at least a decade," he said. "There is clearly a lot of evidence the economy is gaining a lot of momentum."
Victoria's Secret angel Candice Swanepoel comes 4th amongst 10 most beautiful women of 2015. This South African beauty came in 10th on the Forbes top-earning models list last year. She was voted No. 61 in 2010, No. 62 in 2011, and No. 75 in 2013 in FHM's annual “100 Sexiest Women in the World” poll and No. 1 in 2014 Maxim's "Hot 100 List".
这位当选总统承诺废除贸易协议:如果这些贸易协议被修订,可能会对美国大宗商品的进口和出口造成广泛影响。
That figure is more than two times the city's population of about 10 million.
4. 贵金属:“都在玩消失!经济周期下行”
For: A huge box office hit that could benefit from a slowly-changing Oscar voting demographic.

今年最佳的季中交易早已发生了:
经济大萧条在全美各地产生了破坏性的影响,然而很少有地区像亚利桑那州那样遭受重创。20世纪初,该州借助强大的旅游业和房地产市场蓬勃发展。住房中位数价格在2003年到2006年间上涨了70%——仅次于内华达州的增幅——带动了更多的房屋和建筑行业工作岗位。直到2007年接近年底的时候,亚利桑那州的月失业率都一直维持在3.5%的低水平。但是随后经济陷入低谷。住房价格从相比高点惨遭腰斩,亚利桑那州6%的房产在2009年收到了止赎通知。在2009年和2010年的大部分时间里,该州的失业率保持在两位数居高不下,从最近五年的失业率情况看,恶劣程度仅次于内华达州。2008年以来,该州的家庭收入以全美最快的速度下降。
adj. 值得(做)的
2. Marc Faber's Doomsday warning on Bernanke's disastrous QE scheme
国王队由于签约拉简-朗多,科斯塔-库佛斯和马可-贝利内里,实际上还欠费城一个未来首轮签(无保护,最迟2019年)。传说中的无计划重建队啊。

Footnotes

  • 澳门特区政府将参与粤港澳大湾区建设纳入五年发展规划
  • 万事达公司表示,其数据反映出世界主要大城市的互联性,并追踪了商务和休闲飞机乘客的消费方式。

发展最迅速的初创公司往往具有全球化的视野。未来一年,美国总统特朗普已经实施的移民限制,以及英国作为退欧的一部分而在考虑的限制措施,可能会对企业招聘形成障碍。
n. 分开,抽印本
The CPI rose by 2 percent.
To be brief, people with type C personalities are perfectionists, consistent and will never break the rules. Unlike their "sister" type A; type C personalities tend to take their time with the details and often check and recheck their work for accuracy. They tend to be deep thinkers and like to know every detail in regards to their work and life.
I know many of you met your former spouse at the company. But the thing is, for every one of you, there are five people it doesn't work out as well for. And your office romance can and will be held against you.
12306.cn, China's official website for purchasing railway tickets, has become the largest of this kind in the world, with combined sales reaching 3.5 billion in 2017.

蔡奇陈吉宁再次来到小海坨调研冬奥场馆建设

References

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