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我国水性涂料进入产销“快车道”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中国陶瓷压力山大 向高端要竞争力 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

京西楼市迎多元供应 二手房同一片区价差较大

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

1.Actuary
China's manufacturing sector last month expanded at the slowest pace since March.
《经济学人》的数据显示,在2010年,亚洲的整形手术总量超过了580万例,而在美国这个数字仅为450万多一点。
斯特罗恩表示,他认为IP-BOX运用了和FBI没有经过苹果公司的帮助而破解塞义德·法鲁克iPhone 5c相同的技术。现在FBI已经开始向其他执法部门提供帮助解锁iPhone,iPad或者iPod Touch的方法。苹果方面正在积极寻找FBI是如何破解iPhone的,并将推出软件更新来关闭这些漏洞。
目前,达洛伊西奥80%的工作围绕着Summly的重构和改良展开,而另外20%的工作精力则用来思考今后的挑战方向。他预测,未来将会有一款如同Summly精炼文字一样可以精炼视频的软件。他设想了许多运用科技来帮助人们学习知识的方法,并希望在旧有教育模式瓦解的同时帮助人们更好地实现自主学习。
Song “Fire In The Winter”(Kenji Wu and Dream Chorus)
Businesses can benefit in other ways too. Craig Rollason, business analysis manager at National Grid, says he has improved his coaching skills by mentoring a Teach Firster.

随着经济增长放缓,中国政策制定者对银行放贷速度越来越担心。中国银行业监管机构的数据显示,去年中国银行业资产规模增加了逾72万亿元人民币(合11万亿美元)。
n. 轨道(track的复数);磁道;轮胎
The reason for its high valuation is based on the fact that it was the first time China Post released stamps featuring the Chinese Zodiac since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
James Gorman, a Times reporter, accompanied scientists who are trying to understand the genes that distinguish dogs from wolves. Humans who raise wolf puppies must spend 24 hours a day, seven days a week with them in order to socialize these puppies for scientific study. And while the pups may seem cute, they will grow to be predatory wolves, not humanity’s faithful companions. The researchers hope their work will help reveal the trigger that made some ancient wolves into the dogs we know today.
'It's all bullshit. It's a lie. It's a Band-Aid lie to make them feel better. I know these people, I know they're lily-livered, and as long as it looks good on the surface, to them, that's enough.'

Footnotes

  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(7.27-8.2)
  • Foss also points out that recommendations from others are time-stamped, so it looks fishy to have five new accolades on your profile, all written within the same week. "They don't look like they're coming organically," she says. "It looks like you're out shaking the bushes, trying to get people to say nice things about you."

His parents only realised what was going on when the bank called them to let them know about the charges.
反对:在某种程度上,《三块广告牌》分裂了美国观众,它赢得最佳影片的希望或许会因此破灭。
n. 同伴,伙伴,合伙人
《静待黎明》
“有个家伙请了一支军乐队来陪他宣布离职。”
英国新晋首相特蕾莎?梅的年收入为14万3462英镑(约合18万6119美元),其中包括了她作为国会议员的年收入74962英镑(约合97256美元)。

北京年内还将分配万套公租房 配租方式为公开摇号

References

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